EXCLUSIVE WEB CONTENT
Driving Simulation Handbook Web Content
Only chapters with web figures, videos, links, or supplemental text are listed below.
Web Figure 1.1: An inattentive older driver of the University of Iowa instrumented vehicle (NIRVANA) approaches a lead vehicle (panels A and B) and brakes hard (panel C upper plot) to avoid a rear-end collision. There is a corresponding abrupt dip in speed from over 30 mph (25 knots) to 0 mph, as shown by the electronic data from the instrumented vehicle (panel C, lower plot). The severity of the braking simultaneously triggered a DriveCam system to record video of the event.
Web Figure 2.2: Evolution of Driving Simulators and PC Graphics (color version of Figure 2.2).
Web Figure 4.1: The National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, housed in Iowa City, Iowa. At present, this is probably the most advanced facility in the world for driving simulation. (Reprinted with permission of NADS). (Cover version of Figure 4.1).
Web Figure 4.2: The VTI driving simulator in Linkoping, Sweden. This also is one of the most advanced, state-of-the-art motion-based driving simulators in the world. (Color version of Figure 4.2). (Photograph: P.A. Hancock, reproduced by permission of VTI).
Web Figure 4.3: The original Link Trainer or “blue box” as it was affectionately known. Although there is no true motion base per se, the facility did sit on a platform which provided some movement (Figure 4.3).
Web Figure 4.4: Road scene viewed directly through semi-transparent mirror (Head-Up Display) (Figure 4.4).
Web Figure 4.5: Optical-see-through approach with a head-mounted display (HMD) (Figure 4.5).
Web Figure 4.6: Video mixed-image approach with vehicle-mounted display (Figure 4.6).
Web Figure 4.7: Video mixed-image approach with head-mounted display (Figure 4.7).
Web Figure 4.8: Full VR approach with Head-Mounted Display (Figure 4.8).
Web Figure 4.9: Two images from a video clip of the driver’s display in a test maneuver in a school parking lot. A (virtual) truck approaches in a near head-on collision. The driver swerves his (actual) vehicle. The background is the real environment. The traffic cones were used as fiduciary landmarks (Figure 4.9).
Web Figure 4.10: Two images from a video clip of the driver’s display in test maneuver on a country road. A (virtual) truck approaches from the right in a near collision and the driver brakes. The background is the real environment. The white signs on the trees were used as fiduciary landmarks (Figure 4.10).
Web Figure 5.2: Link flight simulator comic showing simulator sickness or vertigo circa 1942 displayed at the Canadian Air Force Hall of Fame Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
Web Figure 6.1: The SimVista tile-based scene authoring graphic user interface.
Web Figure 6.2: The ISAT scenario authoring graphic user interface. The boxes labeled with a “T” are triggers.
Supplemental text discusses the creation of different sample scenarios on three different driving simulator platforms STSIM Drive, SimVista, and Hank
• Lead vehicle braking scenario
• Intersection incursion scenario
• Gap acceptance scenario
Includes Web Figures 6.3 and 6.4.
Web Figure 6.3: Implementing sample scenarios in SimVista: (top) lead vehicle braking, (center) intersection intrusion, and (bottom) gap acceptance.
Web Figure 6.4: Implementing sample scenarios in ISAT: (top) lead vehicle braking, (center) intersection intrusion, (bottom) gap acceptance.
FMOD. Melbourne, Victoria (Australia): Firelight Technologies Pty, Ltd. Available from http://www.fmod.org.
BASS. un4seen. Available from http://www.un4seen.com.
Open AL. San Jose, CA: Creative Labs. Available from http://www.openal.org.
GENESIS. Aix En Provence, France: GENESIS. Available from http://www.genesis-acoustics.com.
V+ with SMx Audio System. Tampa, FL: SimPhonics Incorporated. Available from http://www.simphonics.com.
H3S. Herzogenrath, Germany: HEAD acoustics. Available from http://www.headacoustics.com.
Web Table 7.1: Driving Simulator Motion Systems (color version of Table 7.3).
Web Figure 7.1: The simulator driver is the focus of numerous cue-generation systems (color version of Figure 7.1).
Web Figure 7.2: Motion rendering in a driving simulator (color version of Figure 7.2).
Web Figure 7.3: A Stewart platform (color version of Figure 7.3).
Web Figure 7.4: Lateral motion (color version of Figure 7.4).
Web Figure 7.5: Longitudinal motion (color version of Figure 7.5).
Web Figure 7.6: X-axis SNR contour for the VIRTTEX simulator (color version of Figure 7.8).
Web Figure 7.7: Handwheel torque – Steer Angle curve for the 1997 Jeep Cherokee at 25 mph. (color version of Figure 7.11).
Web Figure 7.8: 1/3-octave responses corresponding to driver-side speakers and DOE (color version of Figure 7.15).
Web Figure 7.9: Equalized 1/3-octave responses corresponding to driver-side speakers and DOE (color version of Figure 7.16).
Web Video 11.2: The stability control example. This video shows loss-of-control scenarios and the influence of electronic stability control (ESC).
Web Figure 16.1: Times Square with a variety of street signs, conventional billboards and digital billboards.
Web Figure 16.2: Several rows of wind turbines located near Pincher Creek, Alberta, Canada.
Web Figure 16.3: Static billboard in driving scenario (left), video billboard (middle and right) in driving scenario.
Web Figure 16.4: Lead vehicle before (left) and during (right) a braking event in video billboard condition. (Color version of printed Figure 16.1).
Web Figure 16.5: Speed change sign with no billboard (left), and in the presence of a video billboard (right).
Web Figure 16.6: Perception response time(s) to lead vehicle braking event by order and condition.
Web Figure 16.7: Minimum headway distance (m) to lead vehicle braking event by order and condition. (Color version of printed Figure 16.2)
Web Figure 16.8: Experimental Drive 1 is shown from start to end with associated road types. The locations of the lead vehicle braking events, billboards, and wind farms are also indicated.
Web Figure 16.9: A picture of Highway 401 near the town of Puslinch southeast of Toronto (left). A similar section of freeway modeled in the University of Calgary Driving Simulator (UCDS) (right).
Web Figure 16.10: A close up of a 15 kW wind turbine appears on the left. The line of turbine that was modeled in the UCDS is on the right.
Web Figure 16.11: Perception response time (PRT) of drivers in the different age groups to the lead vehicle braking events in the presence of the wind farm and baseline treatment conditions. Standard error bars are shown. (Color version of Figure 16.4).
Web Figure 16.12: Age group differences in average velocity in km/hr in the presence of the wind farms, billboards and baseline treatment conditions. Standard error bars are shown. (Color version of Figure 16.5).
Web Figure 17.1: The relationship between activation level, workload and performance (upper part), and specific measures from the simulator computer and physiological activity derived from heart rate measures (lower part).
Web Video 18.1: Video recording of a driver who fails to take an anticipatory look to the right for pedestrians entering a marked midblock crosswalk who are potentially obscured by a vehicle stopped in the parking lane.
Web Video 18.2: Video recording of a driver who does take an anticipatory look to the right for pedestrians entering a marked midblock crosswalk who are potentially obscured by a vehicle stopped in the parking lane.
Web Figure 18.1: Truck Crosswalk Scenario Perspective View (color version of print figure 18.2).
Web Figure 20.1: Research process implications for data reduction planning (Figure 20.1 in printed chapter).
Web Figure 20.2: Visualization plot of raw, mean, and standard deviation of lane position, as well as raw steering angle for four drivers (Figure 20.2 in printed chapter).
Web Figure 20.3: Visualization of components of the lane position. Identical values of the standard deviation of lane position do not reflect similar behavior (Figure 20.6 in printed chapter).
Web Video 30.2: Truck Crosswalk Scenario on Simulator: Trained.
Web Video 30.3: Truck Crosswalk Scenario on Open Road: Untrained.
Web Video 30.4: Truck Crosswalk Scenario on Open Road: Trained.
Web Table 30.1: Scoring of Near Transfer Scenario in RAPT
Web Figure 30.1: Adjacent Truck Left Turn scenario.
Web Figure 30.2: Truck Crosswalk scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.3: Amity-Lincoln scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.4: Adjacent Truck Left Turn scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.5: T-Intersection scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.6: Left Fork scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.7: Opposing Truck Left Turn scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.8: Blind Drive scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.9: Pedestrian on Left scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 30.10: Mullins Center scenario. (a) Plan View. (b) Perspective View.
Web Figure 31.2: Specialized Training Scenarios (color version of Figure 31.2).
Web Figure 34.1: FHWA Highway Driving Simulator is com¬prised of a number of networked computers (color version of Figure 34.1).
Web Figure 34.2: Diverging diamond interchange traffic flow (color version of Figure 34.2).
Web Figure 34.3: Diverging diamond interchange crossover as it appeared in the driving simulator (color version of Figure 34.3).
Web Figure 34.4: Near-side traffic signals were added to the design as a result of sight-line problems detected during the visualization (color version of Figure 34.4)
Web Figure 34.5: Bird’s-eye view of one side of the conventional diamond interchange that was used to provide a baseline against which driver performance in the diverging diamond interchange could be judged (color version of Figure 34.6).
Web Figure 34.6: In the roundabout context, many drivers did not understand the meaning of the lane restriction sign (far right) and lane restriction markings (center) (color version of Figure 34.8)
Web Figure 34.7: Photograph (left) and simulation (right) of Curve No. 2 in subsequent visibility studies. (color version of Figure 34.9)
Web Figure 35.1: Screen Capture of Typical Simulated Intersection. (Color version of Figure 35.1).
Web Figure 35.2: Permissive Left-turn Displays Evaluated by Knodler and Noyce (2005). (Color version of Figure 35.2).
Web Figure 35.3: Partitioned Driver Simulation Display (Color version of Figure 35.3).
Web Figure 35.4: Signal Display Scenarios Evaluated (Color version of Figure 35.4).
Web Figure 35.5: Permissive Displays Evaluated at Wide Median Applications (color version of Figure 35.5).
Web Figure 35.6: Permissive Scenarios Evaluated in Driving Simulator (color version of Figure 35.6).
Web Figure 35.7: Sample Scenario of Computer-based Static Evaluation (color version Figure 35.7).
Web Video 36.2:Use of novel channelizing devices which were drawn in Google SketchUp in Realtime Technologies system.
Web Figure 36.1: Illustration of a light pole object from the scene authoring software with a sign face placed “floating” above the roadway to give the appearance to a driver of a cantilever sign support structure (color version of Figure 36.5).
Web Figure 36.2: Portable Changeable Message Sign typically used in work zones. It was created by placing a customizable rect¬angular text sign in front of a construction arrow trailer found in the scene authoring library (color version of Figure 36.6).
Web Figure 36.3: Changeable Message Sign out of roadway scale to provide adequate reading distance. (color version of Figure 36.7).
Web Figure 36.4: Simulated Changeable Message Sign created by inserting black box with scenario authoring software and using supplementary projector to project image of sign legend into black box (color version of Figure 36.9).
Web Figure 36.5: Pavement marking shields over-projected onto the roadway scene (color version of Figure 36.11).
Web Figure 38.1: Aerial view of Fallowfield road with CN Rail line and transitway extensions shown (color version of Figure 38.1 in printed chapter).
Web Figure 38.2: Location of STOP LINE sign (French LIGNE D’ARRET) (left) and with height reduction (right) so that the left rail crossing flashing light was no longer obstructed. The DANGER, DO NOT STOP ON TRACKS signs (NE PAS ARRETER SUR LA VOIE PERVEE) were moved to the right and the $45.00 fine tab was deleted.
Web Figure 38.3: Proposed red light camera (RLC) sign (left) and Alberta specified sign that was tested (right).
Web Figure 38.4: Proposed cantilevered rail crossing lights (left) and pavement treatment between rail and transit crossings (right) shown from the westbound direction.
Web Figure 38.5: Route of bicyclist after the railway crossing (left) and pedestrian activity at the Barhaven Mall intersection (right).
Web Figure 38.6: Westbound transitway crossing illustrating the travel of buses through this intersection (left). Westbound train present in the railway crossing (right).
Web Figure 38.7: The experimenters’ view of the UCDS with the Fallowfield highway-railway grade crossing shown. The displays from left to right are the quadraplex view (face, upper left; center column, upper right; pedals and feet, lower left; center view simulator, lower right), eye movement calibration and control monitor, Hyperdrive (v. 1.9.2) console and SimObserver recording monitor.
Web Figure 38.8: Fallowfield plan view with associated signing.
Web Figure 38.9: Fallowfield plan view with velocity measurement locations. Eastbound locations used to generate the velocity profile are indicated across the bottom, whereas westbound locations are shown across the top from right to left (color version of Figure 38.2)
Web Figure 38.10: Eastbound velocity profile by age group with standard error bars is shown. The locations listed on the x axis are indicated on the plan view of Web Figure 9 (color version of Figure 38.3).
Web Figure 38.11: Westbound velocity profile by age group with standard error bars is shown. The locations listed on the x axis are also shown on the plan view of Web Figure 9. (color version of Figure 38.4)
Web Figure 38.12: The advance warning sign (AWS), which indicates PREPARE TO STOP WHEN FLASHING (PREPAREZ VOUS A ARRETER QUAND LE PUE LIGNOTE), and X roadway treatment on the eastbound approach to Fallowfield.
Web Figure 38.13: Red light, crossing flashers and gates down when train imminent. The sign on the far right indicates DANGER, DO NOT STOP ON TRACKS (in French NE PAS ARRETER SUR LA VOIE PERVEE). The signs immediately to either side of the stop line show STOP LINE (LIGNE D’ARRET) (color version of Figure 38.5)
Web Figure 38.14: The 3M directional sign heads at the transit crossing with right and left NO TURNS signs on light masts.
Web Figure 38.15: Westbound transit intersection showing stop line and STOP HERE (LIGNE D’ARRETE) signs.
Web Figure 38.16: Truck position once it braked to a stop just past tracks (left) and the position of a driver once he or she backed up so as not to be struck by the train (right).
About the National BIM Standard. (2010). Building Smart Alliance, a council of the National Institute of Building Science. Retrieved from http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/index.php/nbims/about/
Allen, W., Rosenthal, T., and Park, G. (2006, October 23–26). Efficient means for prototyping and reviewing roadway designs through visualization. Presentation at the 5th International Visualization, in Transportation Symposium and Workshop. Denver, CO. [Powerpoint video]. Retrieved from http://www.teachamerica.com/VIZ/10_Allen/index.htm
Granda, T. (2006, October 23–26). Efficient means for prototyping and reviewing roadway designs through visualization. Presentation at the 5th International Visualization, in Transportation Symposium and Workshop. Denver, CO. [Powerpoint video]. Retrieved from http://www.teachamerica.com/VIZ/10_Granda/index.htm
Hannon, J. J. (2007). Emerging technologies for construction delivery. NCHRP Synthesis 372, Chapter 5, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, NCHRP. Retrieved from: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_372.pdf
Hixon III, C. (2007). Visualization for project development, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 361. Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Retrieved from http://www.teachamerica.com/VIZpdf/nchrp_syn_361.pdf
Kunz, J., and Fischer, M. (2009). Virtual design and construction: Themes, case studies and implementation suggestions. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering – Stanford University, CIFE Working Paper #097, Version 10: October 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.stanford.edu/group/CIFE/online.publications/WP097.pdf
Transportation Research Board, Visualization in Transportation Committee web site: http://www.trbvis.org
Transportation Research Board. (2009). Annual Meeting. Proceedings of Session 786 - Beyond 3D: Progressive Visualization for Geometric Design. Retrieved from http://www.trbvis.org/MAIN/786-Proceedings/786-Proceedings.html
Science Blog. (2002, December). UMass professor invites travelers to test-drive Boston’s big dig—before hitting the road—Web-based project aimed at familiarizing drivers with new routes. Science Blog. Retrieved from http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2002/B/20026172.html
Wikipedia (n.d). Virtual design and construction. Accessible at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_Design_and_Construction
Web Figure 40.2: Two CICAS-SSA variable message signs presenting gap and warning information to a driver positioned at a stop sign (color version of Figure 40.2).
Web Figure 46.1: Car following. (Color version of Figure 46.1).
Web Figure 46.2: Driver with UFOV Impairment. (Color version of Figure 46.2).
Web Figure 46.3: Vigilance Task. (Color version of Figure 46.3).
Web Figure 46.4: Collision Detection Task. (Color version of print Figure 46.4).
Web Figure 46.5: A non-conventional display design approach aimed at testing Go/No-Go decision-making by drivers with cognitive impairments. (Color version of print Figure 46.6).
Web Figure 46.6: Change detection task. (a) Original image; (b) modified image. (Color version of print Figure 46.7).
Web Figure 46.7: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Comparing brain activity during fixation, passive viewing (watching) and active participation in a driving-like task presented in the confines of an fMRI scanner.
Web Figure 46.8: Sources of Evidence on Driving. (Color version of print Figure 46.9).
Supplemental text containing descriptions and related figures, for the following:
• Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS)
• IDS illegal intersection incursion scenario description
• SIREN (Simulator for Interdisciplinary Research in Ergonomics and Neuroscience)
• Rear-end collision scenario
• Stolwyk et al. (2005): The simulator description and study design
• The CARA simulator used in article on Parkinson’s Disease (Devos et al., 2007)and
stroke (Akinwuntan et al., 2005)
Readers are also directed to the Driving Simulators in Rehabilitation web site to view the test drives discussed in this chapter: